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Horticultural Science

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NC Division of Forest Resources

North Carolina Urban Forest Council

The North Carolina Urban Tree Evaluation Program


Initial Evaluations

1. Abies firma (Momi Fir). Mature Ht/Wd: 70'/40'. One of the few firs that has been able to withstand the heat, poor drainage, and root rot of the North Carolina flatlands. Needles are notched at the apex. Resistant to Phytopthora root rot.

NC Observations: Tends to break bud early and is susceptible to late frosts. Trees have a course texture. Surprisingly heat tolerant for a fir - even survived in Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Has potential for use in breeding programs.

2. Acer campestre 'Evelyn' Queen Elizabeth® (Hedge Maple). Mature Ht/Wd: 40'/30'. More vigorous that the species, darker leaves, yellow fall color. A J.F. Schmidt introduction. Adaptable, small shade tree.

NC Observations: A consistently good performer with few problems. Fall color is not exceptional.

3. Acer x freemanii 'Indian Summer' (Freeman Maple). Mature Ht/Wd: 70'/60'. A hybrid between red and silver maple. 'Morgan' (Canadian name);`Indian Summer' (U.S. name), was selected by the Morgan Arboretum, MacDonald College, St. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec and is noted for exceptional scarlet fall color and adaptability to urban conditions. Flowers are pistillate (produces seeds). Minor leaf spots.

NC Observations: Fast grower with good tolerance to poor drainage. Very good performer, zones 6-8. Fall color is variable. Occasional leaf spots.

4. Acer x freemanii 'Jeffsred' Autumn Blaze® (Freeman Maple). Mature Ht./Wt.: 50'/40'. A hybrid between red and silver maple. Adaptable and fast growing. Leaves deeply lobed, rich green, with a spectacular orange-red fall color. Minor leaf spots.

NC Observations: Fast grower with good tolerance to poor drainage. Very good performer, zones 6-8. Fall color is variable, but usually good.

5. Acer ginnala 'Flame' (Amur Maple). Mature Ht./Wt.: 15'/15'. Small tree with red fruits and fiery red fall color. Adaptable to wide range of soils and tolerates dry conditions. Often grown multi-stemmed. 'Flame' was selected for superior red fall color.

NC Observations: A consistently good performer with few problems. Great fall color. The species has been found to be weedy in some areas. Occasional tar spot.

6. Acer griseum (Paperbark maple). Mature Ht/Wd:30'/20'. A dignified small tree with attractive exfoliating, reddish bark. Unusual trifoliate leaves for a maple with red fall color.

NC Observations: Appears to be tolerant of dry soils and intolerant of poorly drained soils. Low vigor in zone 8. Probably best with some shade in zones 7 and 8. Slow grower requiring good soils.

7. Acer negundo 'Flamingo' (Boxelder). Mature Ht/Wd: 50'/30'. Variegated foliage with brilliant pink new shoots that later turn green with a white border. Adaptable and tolerant of poor drainage.

NC Observations: Leaf hopers can be a problem. Some shoots occasionally reverted to the non-variegated type.

8. Acer palmatum 'Moonfire' ('Moonfire' Japanese Maple). Mature Ht/Wd: 15'/15'. A purple leafed selection of Japanese maple noted for very deeply colored leaves which hold their color under high temperatures.

NC Observations: Too early to evaluate, 1997 distribution.

9. Acer pseudoplatanus 'Atropurpureum' (Spaethii Maple). Mature Ht/Wd: 40'/30'. A very striking maple with unusual leaves being dark green on the top surface and velvety purple on the bottom. Adaptable and very salt tolerant.

NC Observations: Too early to evaluate, 1997 distribution. Occasional leaf spots.

10. Acer rubrum 'Brandywine' ('Brandywine' Red Maple). Mature Ht/Wd: 60'/40'. A recent release from the U.S. National Arboretum. A hybrid between 'October Glory' and 'Autumn Flame' that produces vibrant red fall color. Produces only male flowers (no fruit) and has a moderately columnar crown. Also has some resistance to potato leafhopper.

NC Observations: Too early to evaluate, 1997 distribution.

11. Acer saccharum ssp. floridanum (A. barbatum) (Southern Sugar Maple). Mature Ht./Wt.: 50'/40'. Should be more heat tolerant than plants from northern provenances. Has yellow-orange fall color. The most recent taxonomic references classify this a subspecies of sugar maple.

NC Observations: Good performer. Good fall color. Did well in zones 6-8.

12. Acer saccharum ssp. leucoderme (Chalk Maple). Mature Ht/Wd: 30'/25'. A smaller and more southern variant of sugar maple native to the Piedmont. Dazzling fall color ranging from yellow-orange to deep red; chalky-gray bark, and dry soil tolerance.

NC Observations: Slow growing. Occasional leaf spots and leaf hoppers.

13. Acer sieboldianum (Siebold Maple). Mature Ht/Wd: 15'/15'. A small tree similar to Fullmoon Maple (Acer japonicum). Green foliage turning a brilliant orange yellow in Fall.

NC Observations: Too early to evaluate, 1997 distribution.

14. Acer truncatum x platanoides Norwegian Sunset (Norwegian Sunset Maple). Mature Ht/Wd: 35'/25'. An interspecific hybrid. Oval form, dark green foliage, orange-red fall color. A J.F. Schmidt nursery introduction. A hybrid tree designed to combine the greater fall color and heat tolerance of A. truncatum with the desirable form, greater size, and urban tolerance of A. platanoides.

NC Observations: One of the best and most consistent performers. Good in zones 6-8. Colors late in the Fall. Vigorous, dependable, with few problems.  May produce large numbers of seeds and can be weedy.

15. Acer tuncatum x platanoides Pacific Sunset (Pacific Sunset Maple). Mature Ht/Wd: 30'/25'. Rounded crown, red fall color. A J.F. Schmidt introduction.  

NC Observations: One of the best and most consistent performers. Good in zones 6-8. Colors late in the Fall. Vigorous, dependable, with few problems.  May produce large numbers of seeds and can be weedy.

16. Aesculus pavia (Red Buckeye). Mature Ht/Wd: 20'/20'. A small growing Buckeye with 8" panicles of striking red flowers. Shade tolerant.

NC Observations: Too early to evaluate, 1997 distribution. Can scorch in full sun.

17. Amelanchier x 'Trazam' Tradition (Serviceberry). Mature Ht./Wt.: 25'/15'. A vigorous tree form. White flowers when the shad are running (April), excellent fruit for birds, and an orange-red fall color. Potential candidate for street tree plantings. A Lake County Nursery introduction.

NC Observations: Often suffered on difficult sites. Japanese beetles, lacebugs, European red mites, and mildew were problems in some areas. Inconsistent.

18. Betula ermanii (Erman Birch). Mature Ht./Wt.: 80'/50'. Large, vigorous growing species native to NE Asia. Oval form. Creamy-pink, peeling bark that comes off in papery sheets.

NC Observations: Minor problem with Japanese beetle. Variable survival and performance. Somewhat nondescript.

19. Betula platyphylla var. japonica 'Whitespire'/ B. nigra ('Whitespire' Japanese Birch grafted on River Birch rootstock). Mature Ht./Wt.: 35'/25'. 'Whitespire' is a superior cultivar of Japanese birch that was selected for white bark, pyramidal form, and resistance to borers. Although 'Whitespire' appears heat tolerant it is intolerant of poor drainage. By grafting 'Whitespire' on river birch rootstock it is hoped to create a more adaptable tree.

NC Observations: When grown on river birch rootstock, 'Whitespire' did well in zones 6-8. Some iron chlorosis on high pH sites.

20. Betula platyphylla var. kamchatica (Manchurian Birch). Mature Ht./Wt.: 60'/40'. Native to Kamchatka peninsula in eastern Russia. Very white bark when young.  Limited testing in U.S.

NC Observations: Variable survival and performance. Very white bark at an early age that eventually develops deep black fissures with age.

21. Carpinus betulus 'Fastigiata' (Pyramidal European Hornbeam). Mature Ht./Wt.: 35'/25'. Excellent medium-sized tree with an upright formal habit. Very adaptable once established.

NC Observations: Consistent performer. Used primarily for its formal habit. Seems to do best in zones 6 and 7.

22. Cercidiphyllum japonicum (Katsuratree). Mature Ht/Wd: 60'/40'. Can reach 100' in some cases. Majestic shade tree. New leaves emerge reddish purple, turn blue green in summer, and color yellow-apricot-orange in fall. Requires a moist site for best growth.

NC Observations: Great when planted in a good site in zones 6 and 7. Suffered in hot, dry exposures.

23. Cercis canadensis ssp. texensis 'Oklahoma' (Texas Redbud). Mature Ht/Wd: 18'/18'. Rich wine-red flowers with thick lustrous waxy leaves. Released by Warren and Son Nursery in 1965.

NC Observations: Hardy in sites in zone 6, but seemed to do best in zones 7-8. Fantastic foliage. Botryosphaerie canker was a problem in some areas.

24. Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic Whitecedar). Mature Ht./Wt.: 45'/15'. Native conifer with slender spire-like crown. One of the few evergreen conifers that is native to swamps and bogs and is well adapted to poorly drained soils.

NC Observations: Winter/desiccation injury in exposed sites in zone 6. Generally turns brownish/green in the winter. Good for wet sites. Thrived in zones 7 and 8.

25. Chionanthus retusus (Chinese Fringetree). Mature Ht/Wd: 25'/25'. Small tree related to our native fringetree. Leathery lustrous leaves, exfoliating bark. The flowers are born in white panicles on the ends of the shoots (early May).

NC Observations: Great from zones 6-8. Occasional late-frost injury. Very adaptable with few problems. One of the best small trees in the program.

26. X Chitalpa tashkentensis (Chitalpa). Mature Ht./Wt.: 25'/25'. A bigeneric hybrid between Catalpa bignoniodies (Southern catalpa) and Chilopsis linearis (desert willow). A small tree, sometimes multi-stemmed, with pink flowers in a terminal raceme. Long bloom period through late summer. A hybrid of 2 U.S. natives crossed in Russia.

NC Observations: Interesting plant with showy summer flowers. However, growth is leggy, weak wooded, poor anchorage on clay soils, and powdery mildew and catalpa web worm can be severe.

27. Cladrastis kentukea (= C. lutea) (American Yellowwood). Mature Ht./Wt.: 45'/45'. Excellent medium-sized native tree. Upright, spreading habit. White, fragrant, panicles of flowers in late May. Yellow fall color. Prefers well-drained soils and tolerates high pH.

NC Observations: Somewhat inconsistent. Best in zones 6 and 7. Generally did poorly in zone 8. Seems to be more tolerant of dry soils than poorly drained clays. Reserve for good sites.

28. Cornus angustata (Cornus kousa var. angustata) (Evergreen Oriental Dogwood). Mature Ht/Wd: 15'/15'. Evergreen or semi-evergreen depending on climate. Some confusion over the taxonomy; it may be a variety of C. kousa or a separate species. Leaves may turn purple in late fall. Flowers and fruit similar to kousa dogwood.

NC Observations: Attractive summer foliage. Sparse bloomer with small bracts. Some severe winter injury in exposed sites in zone 6. Foliage can discolor in winter if temperatures drop below 25 F. Somewhat brittle and susceptible to ice damage. Heat tolerant and generally performed well in zones 7 and 8.

29. Cornus mas 'Spring Glow' (Corneliancherry Dogwood). Mature Ht./Wt.:25'/20'. Small, oval-rounded tree with yellow flowers in February-March. 'Spring Glow' has particularly large flowers, excellent dark green glossy foliage and has flowered well in Raleigh, N.C. Very tough plant. Selected and named by the late JC Raulston.

NC Observations: One of the best small flowering trees in the program. Very adaptable across zones 6-8 with no particular problems. Extremely floriferous with 4 weeks of showy flowers. Excellent summer foliage. Should be used more.

30. Cornus x 'Rutdan' Celestial (formerly called Galaxy) (Galaxy Dogwood). Mature Ht/Wd: 30'/20' A hybrid between flowering and kousa dogwoods that was developed at Rutgers University. Celestial is a vigorous tree with an upright spreading habit bearing flower heads with rounded, white, overlapping bracts that blooms after flowering dogwood. Our research found Celestial to have good resistance to both dogwood anthracnose and powdery mildew.

NC Observations: Does well once established. Some spot anthracnose and leaf scourching on exposed, dry sites. Best on good sites in zones 6 and 7.

31. Corylus colurna (Turkish filbert). Mature Ht/Wd: 60'/30'. Stately, pyramidal tree giving a formal appearance. Has spongy, fissured bark. Adaptable.

NC Observations: Variable survival and performance. Nice specimens in zones 6 and 7. Struggled in zone 8. Japanese beetle injury was severe in some cases.

32. Cotinus obovatus (American Smoketree). Mature Ht/Wd: 30'/20'. Perhaps the best fall color of any small tree. The blue green leaves turn brilliant shades of yellow, orange, and reddish purple in autumn.

NC Observations: Poor survival on difficult sites. Best in zones 6 and 7, struggled in zone 8.

33. Davidia involucrata (Dove Tree). Mature Ht/Wd: 40'/35'. One the rarest and most handsome of all flowering trees. In 1900 Ernest (Chinese) Wilson traveled to China on a quest to collect seeds from the Dove tree. Still rare in cultivation, this legendary tree is very unique in flower with two large, white bracts surrounding each flower - somewhat resembling a dove.

NC Observations: Too early to evaluate, 1997 distribution.

34. Euscaphis japonica (Korean Sweetheart Tree). Mature Ht/Wd: 20'/15'. One of the most unusual and delightful of the plants to come back with Dr. J.C. Raulston from the 1985 U.S. National Arboretum collection expedition to Korea. Extremely rare, Euscaphis is a small deciduous tree with thick glossy, emerald-green foliage. The bark on recent growth is a dramatic violet-chocolate accented with white stripes. The flowers are unremarkable, but in the fall, heart-shaped seed capsules turn an intense cherry-red.

NC Observations: Too early to evaluate, 1997 distribution.

35. Fokienia hodginsii (Fokienia). Mature Ht/Wd: 45'/20'. A rare evergreen species from China and the only member in its genus. Attractive foliage and it thrives on heat.

NC Observations: Too early to evaluate, 1997 distribution.

36. Franklinia alatamaha (Franklinia). Mature Ht/Wd: 25'/15' (if you can keep it alive). OK, probably not one of the most adaptable of urban trees, but certainly one of the most unique. Although franklina has a reputation for being difficult to grow (there is a reason that it is extinct in the wild), it is very ornamental. Striking, fragrant, white, camellia-like flowers are displayed against maroon foliage in early fall. Franklinia also has an interesting history. The famous plant explorer, John Bartram, found this plant in 1770 along the Altamaha river in Georgia. The plant has not been found in the wild since 1790. Requires excellent drainage.

NC Observations: A great tree, just not a good urban tree. Low survival. Needs a good site - moist but well drained.

37. Fraxinus mandshurica 'Mancana' ('Mancana' Ash).Mature Ht/Wd: 50'/25'. A strong shade tree that tolerates moisture extremes from dry to wet. Rapid growth with a yellow fall color.

NC Observations: Too early to evaluate, 1997 distribution.

38. Fraxinus pennsylvanica 'Cimmzam' Cimmaron (Cimmaron Green Ash). Mature Ht./Wt.: 60'/30'. A seedless cultivar with an oval, upright habit. Dark green foliage first turning a deep burgundy then a red-orange in fall. Adaptable. A Lake County Nursery introduction.

NC Observations: Consistently good performer across zones 6-8. Ash borers were found in one tree.

39. Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo). An unnamed clone from Bryson City, NC. Ginkgo. Mature Ht/Wd: 60'/30'. This selection is from a male tree in downtown Bryson City that has a fastigate shape. Full sun; pH adaptable; air pollutant tolerant; golden yellow fall color.

NC Observations: Slow to establish. Low survival the first year.

40. Gymnocladus dioicus (Kentucky Coffeetree). Mature Ht/Wd: 75'/50'. Large, picturesque shade tree with unusual, doubly compound leaves, and scaly bark. Females trees have large seed pods contains seeds that resemble coffee beans, though not a recommended substitute (actually poisonous). Tough tree. NC Observations: Good performer with no particular problems over zones 6-8.

41. Halesia diptera var. magniflora (Two-winged Silverbell). Mature Ht./Wt.: 30'/25'. Spectacular small native tree. Rounded crown, often multi-stemmed. White bell-shaped flowers in May. Blooms 1-2 weeks later than H. tetraptera. Fruit differs from H. tetraptera in that it has 2 (thus diptera) primary wings vs. 4 of H. tetraptera. The variety magniflora has more, larger flowers than the species.

NC Observations: Variable survival and performance, but good specimens exist in zones 6,7 and 8. Not tolerant of difficult sites.

42. Halesia tetraptera (H. carolina) (Carolina Silverbell). Mature Ht./Wt.: 40'/35'. Medium-sized, native tree. Similar culture to Cornus florida. White, bell-shaped flowers in April to early May. Yellow fall color.

NC Observations: Variable survival and performance, but good specimens exist in zones 6,7 and 8. Not tolerant of difficult sites.

43. Lagerstroemia faureii 'Fantasy' (Crapemyrtle). Mature Ht/Wd: 20'/15'. A NCSU Arboretum selection made from the original Japanese plant distribution by the U.S. National Arboretum in the 1950's. It has an upright, tree-form growth habit, excellent white flowers, and red, fluted bark.

NC Observations: Dead in exposed sites in zone 6. Good in zones 7 and 8.

44. Lagerstroemia fauriei 'Townhouse' (Crapemyrtle). Mature Ht/Wd: 30'/25'. A selection of L. fauriei released by the NCSU Arboretum. Excellent reddish mottled bark, white flowers, more hardy and better mildew resistance than indica types.

NC Observations: Not reliably hardy in exposed sites in zone 6. Good in zones 7 and 8. Susceptible to Japanese beetles.

45. Lagerstroemia indica x fauriei `Choctaw' (Crapemyrtle). Mature Ht/Wd: 30'/25'. Reoccurring clear bright pink flowers, spectacular cinnamon brown bark, bronze-maroon fall color. One of the finest tree forms. Mildew resistant. A release from the U.S. National Arboretum.

NC Observations: Nice tree form. Not reliably hardy in zone 6. Somewhat susceptible to Japanese beetles.

46. Liquidambar styraciflua `Rotundiloba' (Fruitless Sweetgum). Mature Ht/Wd: 75'/50'. Unusual rounded lobes on the leaves. Fall color varies from yellow to burgundy. Original tree was discovered in the wild in North Carolina in 1930.

NC Observations: Consistently good from zone 6-8. Fast growth once established. Individual branches occasionally revert to star-shaped leaves with fruit. Some leaf spot.

47. Liriodendron tulipfera 'Arnold' (Arnold Tuliptree). Mature Ht./Wt.: 60'/20'. A very narrow, upright selection originating at the Arnold Arboretum. Attractive magnolia-like flowers (May-June) and golden yellow fall color. Mature trees can have problems with narrow crotch angles and branch splitting.

NC Observations: Well adapted to NC, zones 6-8. Consistently good growth and survival. Slight problems with leaf miner.

48. Maackia amurensis (Amur Maackia). Mature Ht/Wd: 35'/35'. Small tree noted for white flowers on 4-6" racemes in late June and peeling amber bark. Native to China and closely related to yellowwood.

NC Observations: Generally did well with no particular problems. Occasional late frost injury. Lacks strong ornamental merit.

49. Magnolia x 'Ann' (Ann Magnolia). Mature Ht/Wd: 10'/10'. One of the "Little Girl Hybrids" developed at the U.S. National Arboretum. The flowers on 'Ann' are deep purple-red and open before the leaves. Sporadic flowers occur throughout the summer.

NC Observations: Generally did well. Good specimens from zones 6-8. Occasional problems with powdery mildew, tulip-tree scale, and Nectria canker.

50. Magnolia x 'Betty' (Betty Magnolia). Mature Ht/Wd: 10'/15'. Of M. liliflora x M. stellata parentage. A deciduous shrub with large (8" in diameter) purple-red, white-throated flowers of 12-15 tepals.

NC Observations: Average/good performance. Good specimens from zones 6-8.

51. Magnolia x 'Butterflies' (Butterflies Magnolia). Mature Ht/Wd: 18'/18'. Outstanding deep yellow flowers. A hybrid magnolia (M. acuminata x M. denudata) developed by Phil Savage. Flowers profusely.

NC Observations: Wonderful yellow flowers. Variable performance. Performs well across zones 6-8 if given a good site. Occasional late Spring frost injury on flowers. Suckers some from the crown.

52. Magnolia x 'Daybreak' ('Daybreak' Magnolia). Mature Ht/Wd: 30'/10'. A new hybrid developed by a North Carolina breeder, Dr. August Kehr. 'Daybreak' is an advanced cross between M. x 'Woodsman' and M. x 'Tina Duoro'. Blooms late and has a large, 10" diameter, fragrant, rose-colored flower. Vigorous grower with a columnar form. Hardy to -25F. Roots readily from early softwood cuttings using Hormodin #1.

NC Observations: Too early to evaluate, 1997 distribution. Has performed well in western North Carolina.

53. Magnolia x 'Elizabeth' ('Elizabeth' Magnolia). Mature Ht/Wd: 50'/25'. One the first hybrid magnolias with yellow flowers. The result of a cross between M. acuminata (a N.C. native) and M. denudata that was developed at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. The flowers are a clear primrose-yellow.

NC Observations: Wonderful yellow flowers. Variable performance. Performs well across zones 6-8 if given a good site. Occasional late Spring frost injury on flowers. Suckers some from the crown.

54. Magnolia x 'Galaxy' (Galaxy Magnolia). Mature Ht./Wt.:30'/15'. A hybrid between M. liliiflora x M. sprengeri 'Diva' and introduced by the U.S. National Arboretum. Strong central leader. Flowers are 6" across, red-purple-pink and typically open late enough to avoid spring frost damage. A good candidate for a street tree.

NC Observations: Inconsistent. Low survival on difficult sites. Occasional mildew. Nice form and growth once established.

55. Magnolia x 'Ivory Chalice' (Ivory Chalice Magnolia). Mature Ht/Wd: 18'/10'. Large goblets of pure ivory blooms appear before the foliage in early to mid spring. A hybrid (M. acuminata x M. denudata) created by David Leach. Deciduous.

NC Observations: Does well across zones 6-8 if given a good site. Low survival in poor soils. No particular problems.

56. Magnolia x 'Legacy' (Legacy Magnolia). Mature Ht/Wd: 30'/20'. A new deciduous magnolia hybrid (M. Sprengeri 'Diva' x M. denudata) sporting immense pink blossoms in early Spring.

NC Observations: Does well across zones 6-8 if given a good site. Low survival and poor performance on stressful sites. No particular problems.

57. Magnolia 'Legend' (Legend Magnolia). Mature Ht/Wd: 18'/18'. Large ivory yellow blooms. M. acuminata x M. denudata. Deciduous.

NC Observations: Does well across zones 6-8 if given a good site. Low survival and poor performance on stressful sites. No particular problems.

58. Magnolia x loebneri 'Leonard Messell' (Leonard Messell Magnolia). Mature Ht/Wd: 18'/18'. A large shrub or small tree. Deciduous, with purple-pink 12-petal flowers. No particular problems.

NC Observations: Generally good, zones 6-8, if given a decent site. Flowers are susceptible to late frosts.

59. Magnolia x loebneri 'Spring Snow' (Spring Snow Magnolia) Mature Ht/Wd: 25'/25'. One of the best of the loebner (M. kobus x M. stellata) magnolias! Blooms form a fragrant, snow white blizzard in late spring. Blooms later and reduces chances of frost injury. Deciduous, with white petals.

NC Observations: Generally good, zones 6-8, if given a decent site. Flowers are susceptible to late frosts. No particular problems.

60. Magnolia x 'Sayonara' (Sayonara Magnolia). Mature Ht/Wd:20'/20'. A deciduous small tree with ivory-white and pink flowers.

NC Observations: Does well across zones 6-8 if given a good site. Low survival and poor performance on stressful sites. No particular problems.

61. Magnolia virginiana var. australis (Sweetbay magnolia). Mature Ht/Wd:30'/20'. A large shrub or small tree. The variety australis represents a southern provenance that tends to be more tree-like and more evergreen. Creamy white, lemon-scented flowers in May-June, then periodically through September. extremely tolerant of poor drainage.

NC Observations: Variable. Best specimens were in zones 7 and 8.

62. Magnolia virginiana 'Henry Hicks' ('Henry Hicks' Sweetbay Magnolia). Mature Ht/Wd: 20'/15'. A selection from the Scott Arboretum at Swathmore College. An evergreen form of Sweetbay that retains it foliage at temperatures as low as -17F.

NC Observations: Too early to evaluate, 1997 distribution.

63. Magnolia x 'Wada's Memory' (Wada's Memory Magnolia). Mature Ht/Wd: 35'/25'. One of the nicest of all magnolias. 'Wada's Memory' is a hybrid between M. kobus and M. salicifolia. This cultivar maintains the distinctly pyramidal form of M. kobus, but has large (6" diameter) fragrant white flowers before the leaves. Yellow fall color.

NC Observations: Beautiful tree. Good specimens from zone 6 to 8 if given a good site. Occasional late frost injury.

64. Malus 'Adirondack' (Flowering Crabapple). Mature Ht/Wd: 18'/10'. Very upright form, green leaves, white flowers, bright red 1/2" fruit. Excellent disease resistance. A cultivar developed by the late Dr. Egolf at the U.S. National Arboretum.

NC Observations: Attractive tree. Somewhat slow growing. No disease problems. Occasional Eastern tent caterpillar. Best in zones 6-7.

65. Malus 'Doubloons' (Flowering Crabapple). Mature Ht/Wd: 18'/16'. Upright spreading habit, dark green leaves, double white flowers, persistent yellow fruit 3/8". Very good disease resistance.

NC Observations: Good crabapple with no significant disease problems. Minor Japanese beetle injury. Best in zones 6 and 7.

66. Malus 'Golden Raindrops' (Flowering Crabapple). Mature Ht/Wd: 20'/15'. Upright, unusual cut-leaf foliage, white flowers, yellow 1/2" fruit. Good scab resistance.

NC Observations: Not recommended due to severe fireblight.

67. Malus 'Louisa' (Flowering crabapple. Mature Ht/Wd: 15'/15'. One of the nicest weeping crabapples. Pink flowers and 3/8", persistent yellow fruit. The leader must be staked to establish the desired height of the tree. Good disease and insect resistance. Splendid at zoo.

NC Observations: Good weeping form. No particular problems. Best in zones 6-7.

68. Malus 'Royal Fountain' (Flowering Crabapple). Mature Ht/Wd: 15'/15'. Weeping habit, rose red flowers, red bronze foliage. Little information on disease resistance.

NC Observations: Good weeping form. Best in zones 6-7. Minor problems with leaf spot and Japanese beetles.

69. Malus 'Sinai Fire' (Flowering Crabapple). Mature Ht/Wd: 15'/15'. Broad spreading form. Thick foliage, white flowers, red 1/2" fruit. Good disease resistance.

NC Observations: Not recommended due to severe fireblight.

70. Malus 'Sutyzam' Sugar Tyme® (Flowering Crabapple). Mature size Ht./Wt.: 18'/15'. Upright, oval tree with pink buds, white fragrant flowers, green foliage, and 1/2" red persistent fruit. Good disease and insect resistance. Released by Michigan State University.

NC Observations: Good all-round crabapple. Minor leaf spots. Best in zones 6-7.

71. Nyssa ogeche. Ogeechee Tupelo. Mature Ht/Wd: 50'/30'. A rare, small tree found on wet sites in the coastal plain from South Carolina to Florida. Red fall color. Has 3/4" red fruits that are edible and have been used as a substitute for limes - good with gin and tonics.

NC Observations: Variable performance. Some late frost injury. Iron chlorosis found at some sites. Best in zones 7-8.

72. Nyssa sinensis. Chinese gum. Mature Ht/Wd: 45'/40'. Excellent medium sized shade tree. Graceful pyramidal form with attractive branching habit; dark glossy leaves with stunning combinations of red and yellow hues.

NC Observations: Attractive form. Variable performace. Some good specimens in zones 6-8. Severe leaf and twig scale at one sites.

73. Oxydendrum arboreum 'Chameleon' ('Chameleon' Sourwood).Mature Ht/Wd: 40'/25'. A selection of Sourwood made by Mrs. Polly Hill. The fall color varies from rich red, red to yellow or a lime green. Fragrant white bell-shaped flowers in June-July.

NC Observations: Too early to evaluate, 1997 distribution. Appears similar to the species.

74. Parrotia persica (Persian Parrotia). Mature Ht/Wd: 40'/30'. Outstanding small/medium sized tree. Exfoliating bark reveals a mosaic patchwork of colors. Leaves emerge with a purplish border, turning green in the summer, and exploding with brilliant yellow/orange/scarlet colors in the fall.

NC Observations: Variable. Best specimens were in zones 6-7.

75. Phellodendron amurense Macho® (Amur Corktree). Mature Ht/Wd: 45'/40'. Medium-sized tree with compound foliage and unusual furrowed bark. 'Macho' is a male selection (fruitless) with leathery dark green leaves, spreading growth habit, and attractive bark.

NC Observations: Poor survival as most sites. Ornamental merit is questionable.

76. Photinia villosa 'Village Green' (Oriental photinia). Mature Ht/Wd: 20'/15'. A deciduous, small tree with white flowers, red fruit, and red fall color. 'Village Green' is a superior selection from the NCSU Arboretum.

NC Observations: Adaptable over zones 6-8. Fall color variable, showy red fruit. Probably lacks adequate ornamental traits for mainstream use. Aphids can be a moderate problem.

77. Pistacia chinensis (Chinese pistache). Mature Ht/Wd: 35'/35'. Medium sized shade tree. Attractive exfoliating bark, excellent yellow/red fall color. Dioecious, female trees have blue/red fruit. Exceedingly drought tolerant once established.

NC Observations: Average/good performer. Alive in zone 6 (mild winters recently), but looks best in zones 7 and 8.

78. Platanus x acerifolia 'Columbia' (London Planetree). Mature Ht/Wd: 100'/80'. A hybrid between P. orientalis and P. occidentalis (same cross as 'Bloodgood'). Developed at the U.S. National Arboretum primarily for resistance to anthracnose, powdery mildew, and rapid wound compartmentalization rates.

NC Observations: Generally have done well. Plants have proven to be very resistant to anthracnose, as advertised, despite extreme infections in nearby native trees. Lacebugs and Japanese beetles were a minor problem. No data on resistance to bacterial leaf scourch which has been a problem on some sycamores in NC.

79. Platanus orientalis 'Digitata' (Oriental planetree). Mature Ht/Wd:80'/80'. A large, stately, tree developing a wide-spreading head of branches. Bark dappled and flaking. 'Digitata' has deeply divided leaves with 3-5 finger-like lobes.

NC Observations: Poor survival. Somewhat susceptible to anthracnose.

80. Prunus x blieriana (Blireiana plum). Mature Ht/Wd: 20'/20'. A hybrid between P. cerasifera 'Autopurpurea' and a double form of P. mume. Reddish foliage with double, light pink, 1" diameter flowers in early March-April. Generally found to be more adaptable and tolerant of clay soils than many Prunus spp.

NC Observations: Promising small flowering tree. Should be used more. Japanese beetles were a minor problem.

81. Prunus x `Okame' (Flowering Cherry). Mature Ht/Wd: 30'/30'. Early bloomer (March), carmine-pink petals, orange-red fall color. A Styer award winner.

NC Observations: Good performer. Occasional winter injury on trunks in both zone 6 and 7 - appears to de-harden early.

82. Prunus mume 'Peggy Clarke' ('Peggy Clarke' Japanese Apricot). Mature Ht/Wd: 25'/20'. One of Dr. J.C. Raulston's favorite trees.Quoting from the book The Year In Trees by Kim Tripp and J.C. Raulston, "Japanese flowering apricot gives the kind of extravagant floral display in midwinter that most plants reserve for spring. This charming iconoclast of the garden decks its bare winter boughs with ruffled blooms of white, pink, or red that perfume the entire garden with the heady scent of sweet floral spice." 'Peggy Clarke' has double deep rose flowers with a red calyx.

NC Observations: Too early to evaluate, 1997 distribution.

83. Prunus serrulata 'Royal Burgundy' P.P. 6520 (Japanese Flowering Cherry). Mature Ht/Wd: 20'/20'. A purple foliaged form of 'Kwanzan' cherry.

NC Observations: Good performer from zone 6-8. Looks very promising. No particular problems.

84. Prunus x `Schmidtcis' Big Cis (Flowering Plum). Mature Ht/Wd: 14'/12'. Discovered as a more vigorous sport of P. x cistena (Cistena plum). Pink fragrant flowers and red leaves. 'Schmidtcis' is the cultivar name, Big Cis is the trade name. A J.F. Schmidt nursery introduction.

NC Observations: Root suckers can be a considerable problem. Japanese beetles were a minor problem. Some ambrosia beetle. Some branch dieback.

85. Prunus 'Snofozam' Snow Fountains® (Fowering Cherry). Mature Ht/Wd: 20'/20'. If you like weeping trees, this one is for you. Snow Fountains was apparently last in line when geotropism was being handed out - branches grow straight down. In fact, you can grow this plant as a ground cover or cascading over walls. You will need to stake this one if you want to develop a tree form. Good fall color.

NC Observations: Extreme weeper and difficult to train as a result. Branches insist on growing down. Has potential as a ground cover or weeping over walls. Japanese beetles can be severe. Borers.

86. Prunus subhirtella 'Autumnalis' (Autumn flowering Higan cherry). Mature Ht/Wd: 30'/30'. A graceful, upright-spreading, tree that tends to be more adaptable than most Prunus. 'Autumnalis' has semi-double pink flowers which open sporadically during warm spells from fall to winter and flowers fully the following spring.

NC Observations: Variable performance. Some good specimens in zones 6-8. No particular problems.

87. Prunus tomentosa (Nanking cherry). Mature Ht./Wt.: 10'/10'. Small tree with reddish exfoliating bark. Leaves are dark green and very tomentose on the lower side. Pink buds, white, fragrant flowers in early to mid April. Scarlet edible fruit.

NC Observations: Low survival. Very susceptible to Japanese beetles. Some fireblight.

88. Prunus x 'White Glory' (Weeping Nectarine). Mature Ht/Wd:15'/20'. Profuse showy white flowers in early spring. A product of the NCSU breeding peach breeding program but was ultimately released as a landscape cultivar. Fruit are 1.5" and astringent, but fruit set is minimal.

NC Observations: Impressive when in bloom. Variable performance with low survival overall. Ambrosa beetles killed one tree in Fletcher.

89. Pseudolarix kaempferi (Golden larch). Mature Ht/Wd: 40'/30'. Magnificent, large specimen tree. Perhaps the nicest of all the deciduous conifers. Soft foliage that turns a golden yellow in the fall. A broadly pyramidal tree preferring full sun and an acidic well-drained soil. Seems to be more tolerant of heat and poor drainage than the true larches.

NC Observations: Variable performance, but good specimens in zones 6,7, and 8. Amazingly heat tolerant and stress tolerant for a larch.

90. Ptelea trifoliata (Hoptree). Mature Ht./Wt.: 20'/15'. Small tree, sometimes multistemmed. Greenish white flowers in June. Tolerates heavy shade to full sun. Tolerates poor drainage.

NC Observations: Adaptable. Occasional problem with leafhopers. Probably lacks sufficient ornamental traits to become popular.

91. Pterocarya stenoptera (Chinese Wingnut). Mature Ht/Wd: 80'/70'. Stand back, this tree can grow fast. Unusual in many respects: fast growing but strong wooded, seed is a winged nut, a member of the walnut family, yet very tolerant of heavy clay soils. Seeds are borne on pendulous 12-20" chains. Large spreading tree used more frequently as a landscape tree in Europe, but uncommon in the U.S. Excellent for tree houses.

NC Observations: Adaaptable and consistant from zones 6-8. Often grows mult-stemmed. Some concern over potential weediness.

92. Pterostyrax hispidus (Fragrant Epaulettetree). Mature Ht/Wd: 30'/25'. A handsome, small, unusual Japanese tree in the styrax family. White flowers borne in large, 5-10" long, pendulous panicles in May-June.

NC Observations: Low survival. Some suckering and some injury from late frosts. Lacks outstanding ornamental characteristics.

93. Quercus acutissima (Sawtooth Oak). Mature Ht/Wd:45'/45'. Oval rounded crown, clean foliage. Drought resistant once established.

NC Observations: Adaptable. Good specimens from zones 6-8. No particular problems.

94. Quercus frainetto 'Schmidt' Forest Green® (Forest Green Hungarian Oak). Mature Ht/Wd: 50'/30'. Upright vigorous oak with a strong central leader. Large, glossy, deep green foliage. Vary adaptable. A J. Frank Schmidt & Son Co. introduction.

NC Observations: Variable performer and slow to establish. Can have moderate to severe leaf spot (oak anthracnose).  Some good specimens in zone 6-8.

95. Q. nuttallii (Nuttall Oak). Mature Ht/Wd: 75'/50'. Similar to scarlet oak but very tolerant of poor drainage.

NC Observations: Poor foliage qualities. Susceptible to spot anthracnose. Some damage from leaf hoppers. Iron chlorosis on high pH sites.

96. Quercus robur Crimson Spire (English Oak). Mature Ht/Wd: 60'/15'. Upright selection of English oak.

NC Observations: Variable, but some good specimens in zones 6-8. Susceptible to Japanese beetles. No particular problems.

97. Quercus robur 'Westminster Globe' (English Oak). Mature Ht/Wd: 45'/45'. A slow-growing, broadly rounded tree.

NC Observations: Low survival.

98. Rhamnella franguloides (Rhamnella). Mature Ht/Wd: 20'/15'. A small Asian tree with attractive, glossy foliage, good stress tolerance, and excellent fall color. Very rare.

NC Observations: Too early to evaluate, 1997 distribution.

99. Robinia x 'Purple Robe' (Locust). Mature Ht/Wd: 40'/30'. Although sometimes scorned in the U.S., black locust is a common street tree in England and admired for its picturesque habit, furrowed bark, and fragrant flowers. 'Purple Robe' is especially unique with its rose-pink flowers.

NC Observations: Variable with low survival. Best trees were in zones 7 and 8. Very showy when blooming, but nondescript at other times.

100. Sapindus drummondii (Western Soapberry). Mature Ht/Wd: 30'/30'. The tree has compound leaves that turn a deep yellow-gold in fall. Flowers are white and are born in 6-10" long terminal panicles in May to June. Very tolerant of dry soils.

NC Observations: Variable performance with low survival. Not very showy.

101. Sorbus alnifolia (Korean Mountainash). Mature Ht/Wd: 45'/30'. One of the few mountainash that can survive in zone 7 (8?). White flower corymbs, spectacular orange/scarlet fruit, orange fall color. Caution, don't be fooled, this plant has simple (alnifolia) leaves and look nothing like most other mountainash.

NC Observations: Amazingly tough for a mountainash. Consistantly good performer with good specimens in zones 6-8. Japanese beetles can be severe. Showy fruit and good fall color.

102. Sorbus hybrida 'Oakleaf' (Oakleaf Mountainash). Mature Ht/Wd: 25'/20'. One of the unusual simple-leaved mountain ashes. The leaves are deeply lobed and resemble an oak. White-flowered corymbs followed by deep red fruits. Appears to be more tolerant of high temperatures than many mountain ash.

NC Observations Variable. Some good specimens in zone 6-8.

103. Styphnolobium affine (=Sophora affinis) (Sophora). Mature Ht/Wd: 20'/15'. A Sophora native to Arkansas and Texas. White/pink flowers on 6" long racemes. Very heat tolerant.

NC Observations: Too early to evaluate, 1997 distribution.

104. Styrax japonicus 'Emerald Pagoda' (Sohuksan) (Japanese Styrax). Mature Ht./Wt.: 30'/30'. A fantastic, phenomenal, unparalleled small flowering tree. Selected by Dr. J.C. Raulston of the NCSU Arboretum during a plant collecting expedition to Korea. The tree has thick, dark emerald leaves and large, white, bell-shaped, fragrant flowers in May-June. This plant has tremendous potential.

NC Observations: Extremely ornamental. Landscape performance has been inconsistent and trees have had low survival. Trees occasionally fail to survive their first winter, but seem fine once established. Ambrosia beetles have been a severe problem on some styrax, but not (yet?) observed on this cultivar.

105. Syringa reticulata 'Ivory Silk' (Japanese Tree Lilac). Mature Ht/Wd: 25'/20'. Excellent small flowering tree. White flowers born in large (12" long) panicles in mid-June. Foliage is mildew resistant. Potential use as a specimen tree, street tree, or in mass plantings. Relatively trouble free.

NC Observations: Inconsistent with low survival.

106. Taxodium distichum 'Mickelson' Shawnee Brave (Shawnee Brave Bald Cypress). Mature Ht/Wd: 55'/20'. Discovered in 1968 in IL, Shawnee Brave has a tight pyramidal form with short branches. Great for narrow spaces. Tolerant of poorly drained conditions as is the species.

NC Observations: Too early to evaluate, 1997 distribution.

107. Tetradium daniellii (=Evodia hupehensis) (Hupeh Evodia). Mature Ht./Wt.: 40'/40'. Medium-sized flowering tree native to central China. Small white flowers borne in 4-6" coryms on current seasons's growth in mid summer. Foliage is similar to Phellodendron.

NC Observations: Low transplant survival.

108. Thuja x 'Green Giant' ('Green Giant' Arborvitae). Mature Ht/Wd: 60'/20'. An extremely fast growing hybrid between Thuja plicata and T. standishii. Introduced by the U.S. National Arboretum, 'Green Giant' has dark green foliage and can grow 3' per year - an alternative to Leyland Cypress???.

NC Observations: Too early to evaluate, 1997 distribution.

109. Tilia tomentosa 'Sterling' (Silver Linden). Mature Ht/Wd: 45'/35'. Vigorous tree with a neat symmetrical shape. Green leaves with silver-gray undersurface, yellow fall color. Tomentose leaves appear to deter Japanese beetles.

NC Observations: Variable, but some good specimens in zones 6-8. Japanese beetles were a minor problem.

110. Ulmus parvifolia Athena (Lace-barked Elm). Mature Ht/Wd: 40'/50'. A broad-spreading tree with a rounded crown. The bark exfoliates in a puzzle-like pattern exposing light gray and gray-green to orangish brown colors. Leaves are leathery, dark green. An introduction from the University of Georgia.

NC Observations: Generally doing well. Good specimens in zones 6-8.

111. Ulmus parvifolia 'Bartlett' (Lace-barked Elm). A clone from Bartlett Tree Labs. There has recently been a tremendous swell of interest in the selection and introduction of new cultivars of lace-barked elms. Destined to be a major player in the landscape of the 21st century. The species is quite variable and new selections have been made for foliage, bark and tree form. This selection has bright reddish-orange, exfoliating bark even on small branches and a distinct vase-shaped habit. Disease resistant.

NC Observations: Not reliably hardy in zone 6. Generally good in zones 7 and 8.

112. Ulmus parvifolia 'Dynasty' ('Dynasty' Lacebark Elm). Mature Ht/Wd: 40'/40'. A distinctly vase-shaped selection with red fall color. Cold hardy to zone 5. Excellent tolerance to urban conditions.

NC Observations: Too early to evaluate, 1997 distribution.

113. Ulmus parvifolia 'Little Leaf' (Lace-barked Elm). Mature Ht/Wd: 50'/50'. Lace-barked elm from the NCSU Arboretum with very small leaves; however, the tree has a relatively fast growth rate. The bark is not exfoliating but rather deeply furrowed.

NC Observations: Variable, seems best in zones 7 and 8.

114. Xanthoceras sorbifolium (Yellowhorn). Mature Ht/Wd: 25/20' A striking, but relatively unknown tree. Upright habit. White flowers have a yellow-red blotch, 1" diameter that occur in 10" racemes in May. Adaptable and appears to tolerate high pH. Compound leaves.

NC Observations: Poor survival. Does not appear to be particularly stress tolerant. Defoliates early under stress.

The North Carolina Urban Tree Evaluation Program is a cooperative venture among cities, corporations, commercial nurseries, community groups, community colleges, professional associations, the North Carolina Division of Forest Resources, the North Carolina State University, and the North Carolina Urban Forest Council. The primary purpose of the North Carolina Urban Tree Evaluation Program is to develop an information data base on the survival, performance, and limitations (disease, insect, and cultural problems) of a wide assortment of tree species and cultivars in North Carolina. The program was established by Dr. Thomas G. Ranney and Mr. Richard E. Bir, Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center.

[an error occurred while processing this directive] Email: tom_ranney@ncsu.edu

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Updated September 15, 2006