LEAFLET NO: 640
Revised 9/94 -- Author Reviewed 4/96

JUNIPERS IN THE LANDSCAPE

M.A. (Kim) Powell
Extension Horticultural Specialist
Department of Horticultural Science
North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service
North Carolina State University

Junipers are grown all across North Carolina, in just about every landscape situation: around ski villages at Beech Mountain or around ocean-front cottages on Bald Head Island. There are over 170 species and varieties being grown by American nurserymen. North Carolinians typically choose certain junipers found in the species J. chinensis, J. horizontalis, J. sabina, J. communis, J. procumbens, J. conferta, and of course, J. virginiana - commonly known as Red Cedar.

The junipers are all evergreen, with needle-like or scale-like foliage. The color of the foliage will vary from dark to light green, blue to silver, and several yellow and gold colored cultivars are also available. Junipers are deciduous - the male flowers are on one plant while the female (berry-producing) flowers are on another.

Landscape Use

Junipers are popular because of their numerous design characteristics: form, size, color and texture. Low growing junipers can be used as groundcovers, foundation plantings, or specimen plants in rock gardens. Taller growing plants are excellent for screens, hedges or windbreaks.

Culture

The one common likeness found with junipers is their extreme tolerance to adverse conditions. As stated earlier, junipers can grow from the mountains (Zone 5) to the coast (Zone 9), and everywhere in between.

Junipers generally enjoy full sun and good drainage. They will grow in a variety of soils but really do not like wet feet (especially Shore Juniper). During 'droughty' periods in our typical N.C. summers, they withstand the heat and dryness much better than most ornamentals.

Junipers do not tolerate severe pruning. This makes it necessary to determine the growth pattern of a particular juniper before planting. The juniper can be 'tip-pruned' and 'thinned' but not cut back to large limbs and expected to rejuvenate itself.

Insect pests would include bagworms, spider mites, leaf miner and aphids, all of which can be controlled with the appropriate pesticide. The following is a partial list of junipers which grow well in North Carolina.

Botanical Name and Common Names             Landscape Remarks

J. chinensis          Grows very large and is hardy throughout 
CHINESE JUNIPER       N.C.  Typically, an erect, conical narrow 
                      tree form.
                      'Hetzii' - (15') upright spreading branches
                        at 60  angle.
                      'Kaizuka' (Torulosa) Hollywood
                        Juniper - very interesting shapes and
                        forms.  Upright, twisting habit. 
                        Excellent specimen plant.  Grows to
                        20-25'
                      'Pfitzeriana' - (12') upright spreading at
                        a 45  angle.
                      'Pfitzeriana compacta' - (15-18") dwarf
                        form.  
                      'San Jose' - (24") creeping type, spreads   
                        irregularly.  

J. communis           Grows to 10-12' with 8-12' spread.
COMMON JUNIPER        This juniper does not grow well in eastern
                      N.C.  J. communis has reddish-brown dark
                      and grey-green foliage.  Several cultivars
                      available.

J. conferta.          A favorite ground cover juniper which is
SHORE JUNIPER         typically overplanted.  Should be set on
                      5-1/2 to 6' centers instead of 3' centers. 
                      Grows 12-18" high with a 6-8' spread.
                      'Blue Pacific' - ocean green foliage
                      'Emerald Sea' - very salt tolerant

J. horizontalis       Used mostly as ground cover as it grows to
CREEPING JUNIPERS     2' with 6-8' spread.  Many landscape uses
                      with different cultivars.
                      'Bar Harbor' - low spreading.
                      'Plumosa'- upright, spreading to 3'
                      'Plumosa compacta') in height, 
                      'P.C. Youngstown' ) in winter.
                      'Procumbens' - (6") very prostrate form.
                      'Wiltoni' (Blue Rug) - (4-6") prostrate.

J. virginia.          Pyramidal tree form (40-50').  Excellent
RED CEDAR             gray, exfoliating bark, bluish-green
                      foliage, blueberries.  Trunks make
                      excellent fence posts, and small trees are
                      Christmas tree favorites.  Many cultivars
                      available but easily found in native
                      conditions throughout the state.  

Published by
North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service


Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Employment and program opportunities are offered to all people regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability. North Carolina State University at Raleigh, North Carolina A&T State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and local governments cooperating.