Best Management Practices for Plant Growth Regulators Used in Floriculture

HIL #529 Revised 10/98
Douglas A. Bailey, Professor and Brian E. Whipker, Extension Horticulture Specialist
Department of Horticultural Science

 

Plant growth regulators (PGR's) are chemicals used on a wide range of floricultural crops. Products currently on the market (Table 1) are labeled for control of plant height (chemical growth retardants or CGR's such as A-Rest, B-Nine, Bonzi, Cycocel, Florel, and Sumagic), for stimulation of lateral branching (Florel), for substituting for a cold storage requirement (GibGro 4LS), or for promoting flower initiation or earlier flowering (B-Nine, Cycocel, Florel, and GibGro 4LS).

By far, the majority of plant growth regulators employed in floriculture are chemical growth retardants used for control of plant height. However, the application concepts and techniques are given below for all PGR's labeled for use on floricultural crops. While digesting the following text, keep in mind that chemical growth retardants (CGR's) are a class of plant growth regulators (PGR's); not all PGR's are CGR's.

Before applying a PGR, a grower should consider the reason for using the PGR. Recall that PGR's are applied to plants to regulate plant development and to stimulate a desired growth response. For example, chemical growth retardants are used to retard growth, resulting in shorter plants. A closer look at how CGR's work may help emphasize the importance of correct choice and use of PGR's.

Most of the available growth retardants are anti-gibberellins; i.e., they inhibit the synthesis of gibberellins such as gibberellic acid (GA3) within the plant. Gibberellins stimulate cellular elongation, so without them, cells do not elongate as much, and plants do not grow as tall. Ethephon is not an anti-gibberellin; ethephon releases ethylene, which reduces elongation in some crops. Since CGR's, as do all PGR's, affect a specific process in the plant, it is essential they be applied in a manner that assures the most efficient response. Both monetary and environmental costs are too great to apply PGR's carelessly. This conscientious effort to use the minimum amount of chemical as effectively as possible is the basis for Best Management Practices. Best Management Practices for using PGR's can be divided into different categories: timing, target tissue, dosage, application technique, and environmental conditions.

Timing: Timing of PGR applications must be matched to the proper plant stage of development to achieve the desired goal. Usually the labels on the products will give good descriptive stages of plant development to assist with correct application timing.

For example, the GibGro label also defines when to make applications. If GibGro 4LS is being used to partially substitute for cold storage of azaleas, plants should be at Stage 5 of floral development (i.e., style elongated and open) when treatment is initiated. Applying prior to this stage could result in abnormal flower development.

For most plants, apply CGR's such as A-Rest, B-Nine, Bonzi, Cycocel, Florel, and Sumagic after the plant has developed sufficient foliage (photosynthetic area, leaf area) to prevent excessive stunting of the plant's development. For example, a Bonzi spray on pansy plugs should not be made until three true leaves are present on the plants. Earlier applications may stop plant growth completely rather than merely reduce elongation. Apply CGR's just prior to rapid shoot elongation; e.g. after pinching and newly developing shoots are visible, but before shoot elongation has occurred. Remember that CGR's are chemical growth retardants not chemical plant reducers--they cannot shrink plant growth already present. Make your final application before the stage when floral size will be reduced. If growth retardants are applied too late, the size of the flowers can be reduced and floral development can be slowed. A good example would be bract size reduction and delay of bract color in poinsettia due to late application of A-Rest, B-Nine + Cycocel, Bonzi, Cycocel, or Sumagic.

Timing of a PGR application should be based on a physiological stage of plant development such as the number of leaves present, the length of shoots, or plant diameter, not chronological age such as 3 weeks after pinching. Recommendations given in terms of chronological age are merely guidelines that have been correlated to physiological stages and should only be used as rough estimates as to when to apply plant growth regulators. Also remember to read the label when deciding on timing for a PGR application. Many labels suggest the proper plant stage of development for chemical application.

Target: The target tissue or plant part to receive the chemical depends on the chemical and the plant species.

Dosage: Read the label; do not guess on dosage. Keep in mind that a dosage is the product of concentration of solution applied and volume of solution applied per area. If either are incorrect, results could be unpredictable and nonrepeatable. Take care to always apply the correct dosage to all plants treated.

Application Technique: As with the target tissue, the method of delivering a PGR depends on both the chemical used and the plant species to be treated. Table 1 lists labeled application techniques for PGR's in the application method and rates column.

Environmental Conditions: The efficacy of a PGR can be affected by:

  1. the environment at time of application,
  2. the status of the plant at application, and
  3. post-application treatment of the plant.

A good example of an environmental factor affecting PGR efficacy is the effect substrate components can have on CGR's. A bark-containing substrate will reduce the efficacy of A-Rest and triazole growth retardants like Bonzi and Sumagic, when applied as a drench. Therefore, drenching may not be the application method of choice for these PGR's if using a bark-based substrate; or growers should account for the presence of bark when deciding on the concentration of PGR to use.

Another environmental factor of concern is the time of day selected for applying PGR's. Research with foliar sprays of nutrients has shown that the time of day chosen for an application can affect a plant's ability to absorb a chemical. Morning applications, when evaporation rates are low, are more desirable than later in the day. The longer the solution wets the tissue, the greater the chance for chemical uptake. If possible, make spray applications on a cloudy day to allow the chemical solution even more time to be absorbed prior to evaporation of the water from the surface of leaves and stems.

Plant water status can affect chemical efficacy. Plants should not be wilted or stressed at application. A turgid plant is more able to absorb and translocate a PGR than a wilted plant.

With respect to post-application handling of treated plants, B-Nine has been shown to require a long period of time (up to 4 hours) for complete absorption after a spray application. If the plants are watered (wetting the foliage) too soon after a B-Nine application, the unabsorbed chemical will be washed off and the efficacy of the B-Nine will be reduced. This is not true for rapidly absorbed PGR's such as A-Rest, Bonzi, and Sumagic, and plants either drenched or sprayed with these chemicals can be watered as soon as 1 hour after application without a reduction in chemical efficacy. The effects of post-application watering on Florel and GibGro efficacy are not known.

Best Management Practices for plant growth regulators do not end with the guidelines given above. For a total program, growers should always monitor the effectiveness of applied treatments to assure that the treatments are working and to help "fine-tune" the amount of chemical needed. Monitoring treatment effectiveness may indicate that less chemical is needed. Always leave a few untreated controls mixed in with the treated population. This allows comparisons for effectiveness of the PGR treatment. For growth retardants, monitor plant growth for the treated plants regularly to know when plants begin to "grow out" of the treatment and to help in deciding if and when another application is needed.

When used properly, chemical plant growth regulators are effective tools to help produce a high quality crop. When misused, they can reduce crop quality and increase production costs. Uniformity and consistency in application are crucial to attain predictable and desirable results.

Table 1 does not contain reference to Accel or Pro-Shear. Unfortunately, re-registration for both of these products will not be pursued, and neither will be available once current supplies are used. Benzyladenine (BA; the active ingredient of Pro-Shear) at 100 ppm is highly effective on holiday cactus in stimulating branching when applied during the vegetative phase and is effective in increasing the number of flower buds when applied during reproductive conditions; but no product is labeled for this use. Accel (N-Benzyl-9-[2-tetrahydropyranyl]adenine [BPA] is the active ingredient) was labeled for increasing lateral branching in carnation and roses, but will not be available after current supplies are depleted.

Research on floricultural crops has shown many other potential uses for PGR's, such as gibberellic acid (GA3) substituting for cold storage of hydrangea and hastening flowering of cyclamen; however, only those uses listed on a product label can be implemented legally. Plant growth regulators are regarded as pesticides, and it is a violation of Federal and State Law to use these products in a manner inconsistent with their labeling. Hopefully, expansion of current labeling will be possible in the future to allow growers to take advantage of research results showing more efficient cropping and higher quality plants through best management utilization of plant growth regulators.

 Table 1. Plant growth regulators labeled for use on floricultural crops in a greenhouse.

Crop

Purpose

Product

Application Method & Rate

Precautions & Remarks

Ageratum

To control plant height

A-Rest

7 to 26 ppm spray (3.4 to 12.6 fl oz/gal)

Plug culture and flat culture differ in recommended rates. The rates shown in this table include both plug (lower rates) and flat culture (higher rates) recommendations. Apply ALL foliar sprays of plant growth regulators using 0.5 gallon per 100 square feet of bench area. Growers should refer to Horticulture Information Leaflet #528, Height Control of Greenhouse Crops, for application techniques and timing for growth regulators on floricultural crops. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University for further application information.

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

Bonzi

5 to 45 ppm spray (0.16 to 1.44 fl oz/gal)

Cycocel

400 to 3,000 ppm spray (0.43 to 3.25 fl oz/gal)

Sumagic

20 to 30 ppm spray (5.12 to 7.68 fl oz/gal)

Alyssum

To control plant height

Sumagic

5 to 25 ppm spray (1.3 to 6.4 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Alternanthera
(Joseph's-Coat)

To control plant height

A-Rest

25 to 132 ppm spray (12.1 to 64 fl oz/gal)

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Amaryllis

To control plant height

Bonzi

23.66 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (6.4 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Aster

To control plant height

B-Nine

5,000 ppm spray (0.79 oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Azalea

To control plant height

A-Rest

26 ppm spray (12.6 fl oz/gal)

Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Sumagic

10 to 15 ppm spray (2.56 to 3.84 fl oz/gal)

Apply at 1.5 quarts per 100 square feet of bench area. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University for further application information.

To promote flower initiation

B-Nine

1,500 to 2,500 ppm spray (0.24 to 0.39 oz/gal)

Apply solution when new growth from final pinch is 1 to 2 inches long.

Cycocel

1,000 to 4,000 ppm spray (1.08 to 4.34 fl oz/gal)

Optimum rates are generally between 1,000 and 2,000 ppm. Two to six multiple sprays may be needed. Apply first application when new growth is approximately 2 inches long.

To promote lateral shoot growth on vegetative plants

Off-Shoot-O

Use a 3 to 5% solution (8.6 to 14 fl oz/gal) solution in greenhouses; use 5 to 7% (14 to 20 fl oz/gal) outdoors. Apply as a foliar spray.

Efficacy is related to relative humidity and temperature. Spray a few plants to check activity prior treating the entire crop; effects should be visible in about 1 hour. Be certain chemical covers shoot tip. Ineffective if microscopic flower buds are present.

To increase lateral branching

Florel

2,471 to 4,943 ppm spray (8 to 16 fl oz/gal)

Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

To control plant height, reduce bypass shoot elongation, and promote flower bud initiation

Bonzi

100 to 200 ppm spray (3.2 to 6.4 fl oz/gal)

To control plant height and promote flower bud initiation, apply after final shaping, when new growth is 1.5 to 2 inches long. To reduce bypass shoot development, apply after bud set, when bypass shoots are barely visible.

0.59 to 1.77 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (0.16 to 0.48 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

For partial or full substitution of cold

GibGro

250 to 1,000 ppm spray (1 to 4 fl oz/gal)

GibGro 4LS has 24(c) registration for distribution and greenhouse use only within North Carolina. Spray timing, concentration, and number of applications varies with cultivar as well as intended degree of cold substitution. Consult the label for exact recommendations.

To prevent flower bud initiation during vegetative growth

GibGro

100 to 750 ppm spray (0.4 to 3 fl oz/gal)

GibGro 4LS has 24(c) registration for distribution and greenhouse use only within North Carolina. Apply two to three sprays at 2 to 3 weeks intervals after each pinch.

Bedding Plants
(Not specifically listed in this table)

To control plant height

A-Rest

6 to 66 ppm spray (2.9 to 32 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

0.06 to 0.12 mg a.i. drench for a 4 inch pot (0.5 to 1 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 2 fl oz/4 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

B-Nine + Cycocel

800 to 5,000 ppm B-Nine (0.13 to 0.79 oz/gal) + 1,000 to 1,500 ppm Cycocel (1.08 to 1.63 fl oz/gal) applied as a tank mix spray

It is recommended to use the highest rate of Cycocel that does not cause excessive leaf yellowing, and then adjust the B-Nine rate up and down within the labeled range to attain desired level of height control.

Bonzi

30 ppm spray (0.96 fl oz/gal)

Users should conduct trials on a small number of plants, adjusting the rates as needed for desired final plant height and duration of height control. Not recommended for use on fibrous begonia or vinca.

0.118 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (0.032 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench applications are recommended only for bedding plants in 6 inch or larger containers. Not recommended for use on fibrous begonia or vinca.

Cycocel

800 to 3,000 ppm spray (0.87 to 3.25 fl oz/gal)

Users should conduct trials on a small number of plants, adjusting the rates as needed for desired final plant height and duration of height control.

Sumagic

1 to 50 ppm spray (0.26 to 12.7 fl oz/gal)

Users should conduct trials on a small number of plants, adjusting the rates as needed for desired final plant height and duration of height control.

Bedding Plant Plugs
(Not specifically listed in this table)

To control plant height

A-Rest

3 to 35 ppm spray (1.5 to 17 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Drench plug flats with a 0.5 to 1 ppm solution (0.25 to 1 fl oz/ gal)

For uniform application, use a subirrigation delivery system. Plug trays should not be excessively dry prior to the subirrigation treatment.

B-Nine

1,500 to 2,500 ppm spray (0.23 to 0.39 oz/gal)

Users should conduct trials on a small number of plants, adjusting the rates as needed for desired final plant height and duration of height control. Can be used at the beginning of the first true leaf stage through the finishing stage.

B-Nine + Cycocel

800 to 5,000 ppm B-Nine (0.13 to 0.79 oz/gal) + 1,000 to 1,500 ppm Cycocel (1.08 to 1.63 fl oz/gal) applied as a tank mix spray

It is recommended to use the highest rate of Cycocel that does not cause excessive leaf yellowing, and then adjust the B-Nine rate up and down within the labeled range to attain desired level of height control.

Bonzi

5 ppm spray (0.16 fl oz/gal)

Users should conduct trials on a small number of plants, adjusting the rate as needed for desired final plant height and duration of height control. Plants should develop 1 to 2 true leaves prior to first application.

Cycocel

400 to 1,500 ppm spray (0.43 to 1.63 fl oz/gal)

Users should conduct trials on a small number of plants, adjusting the rates as needed for desired final plant height and duration of height control.

Sumagic

0.5 to 10 ppm spray (0.13 to 2.6 fl oz/gal)

Users should conduct trials on a small number of plants, adjusting the rates as needed for desired final plant height and duration of height control.

Begonia

To control plant height

A-Rest

3 to 15 ppm spray (1.5 to 7.3 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

B-Nine

5,000 ppm spray (0.79 oz/gal)

Bleeding Heart

To control plant height

A-Rest

65 to 132 ppm spray (31.5 to 64 fl oz/gal)

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Bromeliad

To promote flower initiation

Florel

2,471 ppm spray (8 fl oz/gal)

Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Browallia

To control plant height

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Bulb Crops
(Not specifically listed in this table)

To control plant height

A-Rest

25 to 50 ppm spray (12.1 to 24.2 fl oz/gal)

0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Bonzi

100 ppm spray (3.2 fl oz/gal)

Users should conduct trials on a small number of plants, adjusting the rate as needed for desired final plant height and length of height control.

1.183 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (0.32 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz per 6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

20 ppm bulb soak (0.64 fl oz/gal)

Soak for 15 minutes. Users should conduct trials on a small number of bulbs, adjusting the rate and soaking period (up to 1 hour) as needed for desired final plant height.

Sumagic

2.5 to 20 ppm spray (0.64 to 5.1 fl oz/gal)

Users should conduct trials on a small number of plants, adjusting the rate as needed for desired final plant height and length of height control.

1 to 3 ppm drench (0.26 to 0.8 fl oz/gal)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

1 to 10 ppm bulb soak (0.26 to 2.6 fl oz/gal)

Soak for 1 to 5 minutes. Users should conduct trials on a small number of bulbs, adjusting the rate and soaking period as needed for desired final plant height.

Caladium

To control plant height

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

Bonzi

100 to 200 ppm spray (3.2 to 6.4 fl oz/gal)

First spray applications should be made when plants are 2 to 4 inches tall.

1.183 to 2.366 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (0.32 to 0.64 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

First drench applications should be made when plants are 1 to 2 inches tall. Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size.

Calla Lily

To control plant height

Bonzi

1.183 to 3.549 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (0.32 to 0.96 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

See Caladium.

20 ppm rhizome/tuber soak (0.64 fl oz/gal)

Soak the rhizomes/tubers for 15 minutes prior to planting.

Celosia

To control plant height

A-Rest

7 to 26 ppm spray (3.4 to 12.6 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

B-Nine

2,500 ppm spray (0.39 oz/gal)

Bonzi

4 to 50 ppm spray (0.13 to 1.60 fl oz/gal)

Cycocel

400 to 3,000 ppm spray (0.43 to 3.25 fl oz/gal)

Sumagic

10 to 20 ppm spray (2.56 to 5.12 fl oz/gal)

China Aster

To control plant height

A-Rest

7 to 26 ppm spray (3.4 to 12.6 fl oz/gal)

Chrysanthemum,
Cut

To reduce "neck" stretching

B-Nine

2,500 ppm spray (0.39 oz/gal)

Spray upper foliage 5 weeks after start of short-day treatment.

Chrysanthemum,
Potted

To control plant height

A-Rest

25 to 50 ppm spray (12.1 to 24.2 fl oz/gal)

Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

B-Nine

1,000 ppm preplant foliar dip (0.16 oz/gal)

Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

1,250 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.20 to 0.79 oz/gal)

Spray when new growth from pinch is 1 to 2 inches long. Some varieties may require another application 3 weeks later.

Bonzi

50 to 200 ppm spray (1.6 to 6.4 fl oz/gal)

Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

0.118 to 0.473 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (0.032 to 0.128 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Sumagic

2.5 to 10 ppm spray (0.64 to 2.56 fl oz/gal)

Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Chrysanthemum,
Garden

To control plant height

Sumagic

2.5 to 10 ppm spray (0.64 to 2.56 fl oz/gal)

Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

To increase lateral branching

Florel

500 ppm spray (1.619 fl oz/gal)

Florel applications will provide some growth retardant effects. A delay in flowering will also occur with the use of Florel. Read the label for restrictions on timing of applications.

Clematis

To control plant height

A-Rest

25 to 132 ppm spray (12.1 to 64 fl oz/gal)

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Cleome

To control plant height

A-Rest

7 to 26 ppm spray (3.4 to 12.6 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Cycocel

400 to 3,000 ppm spray (0.43 to 3.25 fl oz/gal)

Coleus

To control plant height

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Bonzi

5 to 45 ppm spray (0.16 to 1.44 fl oz/gal)

Cycocel

400 to 3,000 ppm spray (0.43 to 3.25 fl oz/gal)

Sumagic

10 to 20 ppm spray (2.56 to 5.12 fl oz/gal)

Columbine

To control plant height

A-Rest

65 to 132 ppm spray (31.5 to 64 fl oz/gal)

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Cone flower

To control plant height

Sumagic

30 to 40 ppm spray (7.7 to 10.2 fl oz/gal)

Cornflower
(Centaurea)

To control plant height

A-Rest

7 to 26 ppm spray (3.4 to 12.6 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

Cosmos

To control plant height

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Crossandra

To control plant height

B-Nine

2,500 ppm spray (0.39 oz/gal)

Daffodil

To control plant height

Bonzi

2.366 to 4.732 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (0.64 to 1.28 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

See Caladium.

Florel

1,000 to 2,000 ppm spray (3.24 to 6.47 fl oz/gal)

Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Dahlia,
Bedding Plant

To control plant height

A-Rest

7 to 26 ppm spray (3.4 to 12.6 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Bonzi

5 to 45 ppm spray (0.16 to 1.44 fl oz/gal)

Cycocel

400 to 3,000 ppm spray (0.43 to 3.25 fl oz/gal)

Sumagic

10 to 20 ppm spray (2.56 to 5.12 fl oz/gal)

Dahlia,
Tuberous

To control plant height

A-Rest

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Bonzi

1.183 to 4.732 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (0.32 to 1.28 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Delphinium

To control plant height

A-Rest

35 to 132 ppm spray (17 to 64 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Dianthus

To control plant height

A-Rest

7 to 26 ppm spray (3.4 to 12.6 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

Bonzi

5 to 60 ppm spray (0.16 to 1.92 fl oz/gal)

Cycocel

400 to 3,000 ppm spray (0.43 to 3.25 fl oz/gal)

Dracaena

To control plant height

A-Rest

25 to 132 ppm spray (12.1 to 64 fl oz/gal)

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Dusty Miller

To control plant height

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Sumagic

30 ppm spray (7.7 fl oz/gal)

Easter Lily

To control plant height

A-Rest

50 ppm spray (24.2 fl oz/gal)

Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

0.25 to 0.5 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Sumagic

10 to 25 ppm spray (2.56 to 6.4 fl oz/gal)

Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

0.03 to 0.06 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (0.065 to 0.13 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Exacum

To control plant height

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

Fatshedera

To control plant height

A-Rest

65 to 132 ppm spray (31.5 to 64 fl oz/gal)

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Flowering/Foliage Plants, Herbaceous Species
(Not specifically listed in this table)

To control plant height

A-Rest

20 to 50 ppm spray (9.7 to 24.2 fl oz/gal)

Recommended starting rate for an A-Rest spray on a new herbaceous flowering or foliage species is 33 ppm (16 fl oz/gal).

0.125 to 0.25 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (0.5 to 1 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Bonzi

30 ppm spray (0.96 fl oz/gal)

Users should conduct trials on a small number of plants, adjusting the rate as needed for desired final plant height and length of height control.

0.118 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (0.032 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Cycocel

800 to 4,000 ppm spray (0.87 to 4.34 fl oz/gal)

Optimum rate depends on species, desired amount of height control, and environmental conditions. The suggested initial rate for small-scale trials is 1,250 ppm. Example herbaceous species known to respond to cycocel are Achimenes, Aster, Astilbe, Begonia (hiemalis), Begonia (tuberous), Calceolaria, Carnation, Chrysanthemum, Columbine, Easter lily, Gynura aurantiaca, Ivy, Kalanchoe, Lilium spp., Morning glory, Pachystachys, Pilea spp., Pentas, Salvia spp., Schefflera, Sedum spp., and Sunflower.

2,000 to 4,000 ppm drench

Drench volumes vary with pot size. See label for recommended volumes. Herbaceous species known to respond to cycocel are listed above.

Sumagic

5 to 40 ppm spray (1.3 to 10.2 fl oz/gal)

Users should conduct trials on a small number of plants, adjusting the rate as needed for desired final plant height and length of height control.

0.1 to 1 ppm drench (0.026 to 0.26 fl oz/gal)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Flowering/Foliage Plants, Woody Species
(Not specifically listed in this table)

To control plant height

A-Rest

50 ppm spray (24.2 fl oz/gal)

0.25 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

B-Nine

2,500 to 7,500 ppm spray (0.39 to 1.18 oz/gal)

Two or more applications may be necessary if new growth begins to stretch or for enhanced coloration.

Bonzi

50 ppm spray (1.6 fl oz/gal)

Users should conduct trials on a small number of plants, adjusting the rate as needed for desired final plant height and length of height control.

0.237 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (0.064 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Cycocel

800 to 4,000 ppm spray (0.87 to 4.34 fl oz/gal)

Optimum rate depends on species, desired amount of height control, and environmental conditions. The suggested initial rate for small-scale trials is 1,250 ppm. Example woody species known to respond to cycocel are Baleria cristata, Bougainvillea, Camellia, Gardenia, Fuchsia, Hollies, Hydrangea, Lantana, Pseuderanthemum lactifolia, Rhododendron, and Roses (potted).

2,000 to 4,000 ppm drench

Drench volumes vary with pot size. See label for recommended volumes. Woody species known to respond to cycocel are listed above.

Sumagic

20 to 50 ppm spray (5.1 to 12.7 fl oz/gal)

Users should conduct trials on a small number of plants, adjusting the rate as needed for desired final plant height and length of height control.

0.5 to 2 ppm drench (0.13 to 0.52 fl oz/gal)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Freesia

To control plant height

Bonzi

100 to 300 ppm corm soak (3.2 to 9.6 fl oz/gal)

Soak corms in the solution for 1 hour before planting.

Fuchsia

To increase lateral branching

Florel

500 ppm spray (1.619 fl oz/gal)

Florel applications will provide some growth retardant effects. A delay in flowering will also occur with the use of Florel. Read the label for restrictions on timing of applications.

Gardenia

To control plant height

A-Rest

50 ppm spray (24.2 fl oz/gal)

0.25 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

B-Nine

5,000 ppm spray (0.79 oz/gal)

Geranium

To control plant height

A-Rest

26 to 66 ppm spray (12.6 to 32 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Bonzi

5 to 20 ppm spray (0.16 to 0.64 fl oz/gal)

Apply to zonal geraniums when new growth is 1.5 to 2 inches long. Apply to seed geraniums approximately 2 to 4 weeks after transplanting.

Cycocel

800 to 1,500 ppm spray (0.87 to 1.63 fl oz/gal)

First application should be made 2 to 4 weeks after planting plugs or rooted cuttings (after stems have started elongating). Multiple applications may be needed.

Sumagic

3 to 6 ppm spray (0.77 to 1.54 fl oz/gal) for cutting geraniums and 2 to 4 ppm spray (0.51 to 1.02 fl oz/gal) for seed geraniums

See Ageratum.

To promote earlier flowering in seed geraniums

Cycocel

1,500 ppm spray (1.63 fl oz/gal)

Make two applications at 35 and 42 days after seeding. Treated plants should flower earlier, be more compact, and more well-branched than untreated plants.

To increase lateral branching

Florel

500 to 1,000 ppm spray (1.619 to 3.24 fl oz/gal)

Labeled for zonal and ivy geraniums. Use the lower concentration for ivy geraniums. Florel will also provide some growth retardant effect. A delay in flowering will also occur with the use of Florel. Read the label for restrictions on timing of applications.

Gerbera Daisy

To control plant height

A-Rest

25 to 132 ppm spray (12.1 to 64 fl oz/gal)

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

B-Nine

1,200 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.18 to 0.79 oz/gal)

Gloxinia

To control peduncle length

B-Nine

1,250 ppm spray (0.19 oz/gal)

Phytotoxicity may occur at rates >1,250 ppm.

Gomphrena

To control plant height

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Cycocel

400 to 3,000 ppm spray (0.43 to 3.25 fl oz/gal)

Hibiscus

To control plant height

Bonzi

30 to 150 ppm spray (0.96 to 4.8 fl oz/gal)

Application should be made when laterals are 1 to 4 inches long. Single applications control lateral growth for 3 to 6 months.

Cycocel

200 to 600 ppm spray (0.22 to 0.65 fl oz/gal)

Multiple applications starting prior to first pinch are recommended.

Holly

To control plant height

A-Rest

50 ppm spray (24.2 fl oz/gal)

0.25 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Hollyhock

To control plant height

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

Hyacinth

To reduce stem topple

Florel

1,000 ppm spray (3.24 fl oz/gal)

Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Hybrid Lily

To control plant height

Bonzi

250 to 500 ppm spray (8.0 to 16.0 fl oz/gal)

See Caladium.

1.183 to 2.366 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (0.32 to 0.64 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

20 to 30 ppm bulb soak (0.64 to 0.96 fl oz/gal)

Soak bulbs in the solution for 15 minutes prior to planting.

Sumagic

2.5 to 10 ppm spray (0.6 to 2.6 fl oz/gal)

1 to 10 ppm bulb soak (0.26 to 2.6 fl oz/gal)

Soak bulbs in the solution for 1 to 5 minutes prior to planting.

Hydrangea

To control plant height

A-Rest

50 ppm spray (24.2 fl oz/gal)

0.25 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

B-Nine

2,500 to 7,500 ppm spray (0.39 to 1.18 oz/gal)

Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Hypoestes

To control plant height

Cycocel

400 to 3,000 ppm spray (0.43 to 3.25 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Impatiens

To control plant height

A-Rest

10 to 44 ppm spray (4.8 to 21.3 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Bonzi

5 to 45 ppm spray (1.44 to 2.02 fl oz/gal)

Sumagic

5 to 10 ppm spray (1.28 to 2.56 fl oz/gal)

Jerusalem Cherry

To control plant height

Cycocel

400 to 3,000 ppm spray (0.43 to 3.25 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Kalanchoe

To control peduncle length

B-Nine

1,200 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.18 to 0.79 oz/gal)

Phytotoxicity possible if B-Nine accumulates in cupped areas of certain cupped-leafed varieties.

Lantana

To increase lateral branching

Florel

500 ppm spray (1.619 fl oz/gal)

Florel applications will provide some growth retardant effects. A delay in flowering will also occur with the use of Florel. Read the label for restrictions on timing of applications.

Liatris

To control plant height

A-Rest

25 to 132 ppm spray (12.1 to 64 fl oz/gal)

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

Marigold

To control plant height

A-Rest

13 to 33 ppm spray (6.3 to 16 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

Bonzi

10 to 60 ppm spray (0.32 to 1.92 fl oz/gal)

Cycocel

400 to 3,000 ppm spray (0.43 to 3.25 fl oz/gal)

Sumagic

10 to 20 ppm spray (2.56 to 5.12 fl oz/gal)

Monarda

To control plant height

Sumagic

15 to 30 ppm spray (3.8 to 7.7 fl oz/gal)

Monstera

To control plant height

A-Rest

25 to 132 ppm spray (12.1 to 64 fl oz/gal)

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Montbretia

To control plant height

Bonzi

20 to 30 ppm corm soak (0.64 to 0.96 fl oz/gal)

Soak corms in the solution for 15 minutes prior to planting.

Nasturtium

To control plant height

Cycocel

400 to 3,000 ppm spray (0.43 to 3.25 fl oz/gal)

Nepthytis, Green & Green Gold

To control plant height

A-Rest

25 to 132 ppm spray (12.1 to 64 fl oz/gal)

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Pansy

To control plant height

A-Rest

3 to 15 ppm spray (1.5 to 7.3 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Bonzi

1 to 15 ppm spray (0.03 to 0.48 fl oz/gal)

Sumagic

1 to 6 ppm spray (0.26 to 1.54 fl oz/gal)

Petunia

To control plant height

A-Rest

10 to 26 ppm spray (4.8 to 12.6 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

Bonzi

5 to 60 ppm spray (0.16 to 1.92 fl oz/gal)

Sumagic

25 to 50 ppm spray (6.4 to 12.79 fl oz/gal)

Philodendron

To control plant height

A-Rest

25 to 132 ppm spray (12.1 to 64 fl oz/gal)

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Phlox

To control plant height

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

Pilea

To control plant height

A-Rest

25 to 132 ppm spray (12.1 to 64 fl oz/gal)

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Poinsettia

To control plant height

A-Rest

0.06 to 0.25 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (0.25 to 1 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

B-Nine

2,000 to 3,000 ppm spray (0.31 to 0.47 oz/gal)

Not effective in our studies.

B-Nine + Cycocel

800 to 2,500 ppm B-Nine (0.13 to 0.39 oz/gal) + 1,000 to 1,500 ppm Cycocel (1.08 to 1.63 fl oz/gal) spray

Use the higher rates of this tank mix spray on stock plants and for finishing crops in very warm regions. Outside of very warm areas, growers should use the lower rates. Too late of an application can delay flowering and reduce bract size.

Bonzi

10 to 30 ppm spray (0.32 to 0.96 fl oz/gal)

Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

0.237 to 0.473 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (0.064 to 0.128 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volume and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Consult the label for recommended volumes.

Cycocel

800 to 1,500 ppm spray (0.87 to 1.63 fl oz/gal)

For natural season crops in N.C., do not apply cycocel after Nov. 1. Late applications can reduce bract size and delay flowering.

3,000 to 4,000 ppm drench (3.25 to 4.34 fl oz/gal of drench solution)

Drench volume varies with pot size. Consult the label for recommended volumes.

Sumagic

2.5 to 10 ppm spray (0.64 to 2.56 fl oz/gal)

Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Portulaca

To control plant height

A-Rest

7 to 26 ppm spray (3.4 to 12.6 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Sumagic

15 to 30 ppm spray (3.8 to 7.7 fl oz/gal)

Pothos

To control plant height

A-Rest

25 to 132 ppm spray (12.1 to 64 fl oz/gal)

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Purple Cone flower

To control plant height

Sumagic

30 to 40 ppm spray (7.7 to 10.2 fl oz/gal)

Purple Passion
(Gynura aurantiaca)

To control plant height

A-Rest

26 to 132 ppm spray (12.6 to 64 fl oz/gal)

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Salvia

To control plant height

A-Rest

10 to 26 ppm spray (4.8 to 12.6 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

Bonzi

5 to 60 ppm spray (0.16 to 1.92 fl oz/gal)

Cycocel

400 to 3,000 ppm spray (0.43 to 3.25 fl oz/gal)

Sumagic

5 to 10 ppm spray (1.28 to 2.56 fl oz/gal)

Schefflera

To control plant height

A-Rest

25 to 132 ppm spray (12.1 to 64 fl oz/gal)

0.25 to 0.50 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Shasta Daisy

To control plant height

Sumagic

15 to 30 ppm spray (3.8 to 7.7 fl oz/gal)

Snapdragon

To control plant height

A-Rest

10 to 26 ppm spray (4.8 to 12.6 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Bonzi

5 to 90 ppm spray (0.16 to 2.88 fl oz/gal)

Sumagic

25 to 50 ppm spray (6.4 to 12.79 fl oz/gal)

Spathiphyllum

To induce flower initiation

GibGro

250 ppm spray (1 fl oz/gal)

GibGro 4LS has 24(c) registration for distribution and greenhouse use only within North Carolina. One application should be made during the non-seasonal blooming period, typically June through January.

Speedwell
(Veronica)

To control plant height

Sumagic

20 to 40 ppm spray (5.1 to 10.2 fl oz/gal)

Sunflower

To control plant height

Cycocel

400 to 3,000 ppm spray (0.43 to 3.25 fl oz/gal)

Tulip

To control plant height

A-Rest

0.125 to 0.5 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (0.5 to 2 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Bonzi

0.591 to 4.732 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (0.16 to 1.28 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size.

2 to 5 ppm bulb soak (0.064 to 0.16 fl oz/gal)

Soak bulbs for 1 hour prior to planting.

Verbena

To control plant height

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Cycocel

400 to 3,000 ppm spray (0.43 to 3.25 fl oz/gal)

To increase lateral branching

Florel

500 ppm spray (1.619 fl oz/gal)

Florel applications will provide some growth retardant effects. A delay in flowering will also occur with the use of Florel. Read the label for restrictions on timing of applications.

Vinca
(Catharanthus)

To control plant height

A-Rest

5 to 18 ppm spray (2.4 to 8.7 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

Cycocel

400 to 3,000 ppm spray (0.43 to 3.25 fl oz/gal)

Sumagic

1 to 3 ppm spray (0.26 to 0.77 fl oz/gal)

Vinca Vine
(Vinca spp.)

To increase lateral branching

Florel

500 ppm spray (1.619 fl oz/gal)

Florel applications will provide some growth retardant effects. A delay in flowering will also occur with the use of Florel. Read the label for restrictions on timing of applications.

Viola

To control plant height

Sumagic

1 to 5 ppm spray (0.26 to 1.28 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

Wandering Jew

To control plant height

A-Rest

26 to 132 ppm spray (12.6 to 64 fl oz/gal)

Woody Landscape Plants
(Not specifically listed in this table)

To control plant height

A-Rest

50 ppm spray (24.2 fl oz/gal)

0.25 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (1 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

Drench volumes and mg a.i. vary with pot size. Contact floricultural specialists at NC State University.

Bonzi

0.473 mg a.i. drench for a 6 inch pot (0.128 fl oz/gal of drench solution; apply 4 fl oz/6 inch pot)

See Bedding Plants

100 ppm spray (3.2 fl oz/gal)

Zinnia

To control plant height

A-Rest

7 to 26 ppm spray (3.4 to 12.6 fl oz/gal)

See Ageratum.

B-Nine

2,500 to 5,000 ppm spray (0.39 to 0.79 oz/gal)

Bonzi

5 to 45 ppm spray (0.16 to 1.45 fl oz/gal)

Cycocel

400 to 3,000 ppm spray (0.43 to 3.25 fl oz/gal)


Recommendations for the use of chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not imply endorsement by the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who use chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current regulations and conforms to the product label. Be sure to obtain current information about usage and examine a current product label before applying any chemical. For assistance, contact an agent of the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service in your county.
Published by
North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service

Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Employment and program opportunities are offered to all people regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability. North Carolina State University at Raleigh, North Carolina A&T State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and local governments cooperating. 



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